п»їDeath Euphemisms Between Chinese and English language: A Contrastive Analysis

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Euphemism is a typical and common cultural phenomenon in both Oriental and English language communities, that includes a long standing record. Death euphemism, which takes on a vital role in linguistics, is an important component of euphemism. The thesis tends to make a contrastive research of loss of life euphemism among Chinese and English under the two definitely different tradition characteristics and also to explore the deep traditions connotations below this terminology phenomenon. This kind of thesis consists of five parts:

Part one, the intro, presents a quick view of euphemism and death euphemism. Many earlier researches of euphemism are stated and supply the definition of euphemism. Part two, three and four are the key bodies from the whole thesis: Part two provides the theoretical backgrounds and bases of death euphemism, mainly about " the idea of the framework of culture” and American anthropologist Florence Kluckhohn's " Five Orientation”. Part three classifies Chinese language death euphemism and British death euphemism respectively. Component four the contrastive research of loss of life euphemism in Chinese and English, generally from 3 aspects, specifically, religions, social customs and cultural patterns. The last component is the realization of the entire thesis which in turn aims at improving our comprehension of other nationalities as well as our personal cultures, especially death ethnicities.

Key Words

Fatality; euphemism; lifestyle; difference

摘 要

在中国和西方许多地区,委婉语作为一种既典型又普遍的文化现象拥有悠久的历史。死亡委婉语是委婉语的重要组成部分,它在语言学中起着至关重要的作用。这篇论文将要在中西两种截然不同的文化特征下对死亡委婉语做对比分析,并且探讨在这种语言现象下深刻的文化内涵。 这篇论文由五个部分组成:

第一部分,导论,简单介绍委婉于和死亡委婉语, 阐述先前多位学者对委婉语的研究并且给委婉语下定义。 第二,三,四部分是整篇论文的主体部分: 第二部分为死亡委婉语提供理论背景和基础,主要运用了" 语境说”以及美国人类学家Florence Kluckhohn's 的" 五个价值取向”。第三部分分别对中英死亡委婉语进行分类。第四部分主要从三个方面即宗教,社会风俗和文化模式对中英死亡委婉语进行对比分析。 最后一部分是整篇论文的结论, 希望通过对死亡委婉语的对比分析,在理解自己国家文化的同时对其他国家的文化有所了解,特别是对死亡文化有所了解。

е…ій”®иЇЌ

死亡;委婉语; 文化; 差异

Introduction

Both equally Chinese and English Neighborhoods have selected notions that people try to mention indirectly, even then there may be such a term in this language. Since words related to unpleasant items would make persons feel uncomfortable. Therefore , when folks mentioned these kinds of notions, the user will replacement a different or an indirect term that sounds much better than the direct one. The English word " euphemism” comes from the Greek european, meaning " well” or " sounding good”, and pheme, that means " speech” or " saying” that may be, speaking with good words or perhaps better good manners. Death is considered the most terrible celebration to man. As a consequence, it is just a forbidden location in every culture. To avoid talking about directly, the word " euphemisms” are created to substitute for it. Death euphemism is not only linguistic phenomenon, nevertheless also a ethnic phenomenon, that may reflect the traditional value, religious beliefs, and social customs of the nations. In both Chinese and The english language death euphemisms has been applied more than prior to. Paying attention to the many death euphemisms that are commonly used may increase our understanding about society's attitudes toward death.

в…. Euphemism and Death Euphemism

More and more educated and non-educated people make use of euphemisms today. Among the euphemisms, death euphemisms are playing an important role when people speak with others.

A. Previous Research of Euphemism

Euphemism has long been discussed simply by scholars for some time. Hugh Rawson (1981), Parasite (1985), 张拱贵(1996)etc. researched that in their individual fields. The main concern of students like Hugh Rawson, Neaman & Sliver (1983) and Ayto (1993), 刘纯豹 (1990)和 张拱贵(1996)is to gather and categorize euphemism pertaining to dictionaries. These kinds of scholars' studies are mainly concentrate on or limited in 3 areas: book compiling, rhetoric, and semantics. However , individuals linguists focused on the details of language framework pay very little attention to the context in which speech is embedded in order to the conditions that the socio-cultural factors use. Generally there...

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[4] Parasite, G.. N & M. H. Short. Style in fiction. A Linguistic Summary of English Fictional Prose. Birmingham: Longman. 1999.

[5] Leech, G. English Grammar intended for Today. The Macmillan Press LTD. 1982.

[6] Leech, G. Semantics. Haedmondsworth: Penguin Books, Limited. 1985.

[7] Malinowski, B. " The condition of Which means in Ancient Language. ” The Meaning of Meaning. Impotence. C. E. Ogden and I. A Richards. New York: Harcount Brace Jovanovich. 1923.

[8] Ayto, John, C. G. Kind Phrases: A Collection of synonyms of Euphemisms. New York: Information On File, Inc. 1983

[9] Rawson, Hugh

[10] Samovar, L. A. ou al. Interaction between Civilizations. Beijing: Language Teaching and Research Press. 2000.

[11] Succinct Oxford Dictionary

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[15] 冯广义. 语境适应论. 中央民族大学硕士毕业论文, 1997.

[16] 刘纯豹. A Dictionary of Euphemism. 江苏: 江苏教育出版社, 1990.

[17] 束定芳, 徐金元

[18] 张拱贵. 汉语委婉语词典. 北京: 北京语言文化大学出版社, mil novecentos e noventa e seis.

[19] 张宇平. 委婉语. 北京: 新华出版社, 1998.

B. Florence Kluckhohn's Five Orientations

American anthropologist, Florencia Kluckhohn (1961) identified five orientations, that is certainly, five categories of beliefs and behaviors for comparing ethnical values

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